How did the earth change with the Global Flood? Obviously the Flood itself left many layers of sediment. These persist as the “geological column.” But the earth also rolled on its axis a few centuries after the Flood. That roll explains much about the kinds of fossils we see at certain latitudes. It also gives rise to new insights in the debate on global warming: whether it is happening, how fast, and whether it has happened before.
Showing the lay of the pre-Flood Earth
Regular readers of this news page will recall the experiment by Pam Elder on this point. She took a 1965 Rand-McNally World Portrait Globe, dismounted it, and remounted it on two recalculated points for the North and South Poles. She then redrew the Equator to show where it passed. Strikingly, the Equator crossed the present United States at the level of northern California and southern Maine, crossed Australia through Queensland, New South Wales, and South Australia, then crossed the Indian Ocean, and crossed Africa twice, through South Africa, Southwest Africa, Angola, then through the Ivory Coast, Guinea, and Senegal. This passage suggested one way to explain the frozen mammoths of northern Canada: that region originally was tropical, or at least subtropical.
To show definitively whether any given region was tropical or not, one must draw more than the pre-Flood Equator. Recently this correspondent replicated Pam Elder’s experiment. To do this on your own, you will need:
- A world portrait globe, which you will dismount and remount.
- Grommets or eyelets that will fit the mount pins at the poles.
- A drill with a bit to match.
- A felt-tip marker.
To do this:
- Draw a great circle arc to show all possible locations for the North Pole. Walter T. Brown, who developed the Hydroplate Theory, calculated the endpoints of this arc. See “Earth Roll” here, and end notes 83 and 84, here. (Take note also of Figures 80 and 81.) In brief: the earth could have rolled as much as 57 degrees south to place the Himalayas at their present spot. But the earth must have rolled at least 33 degrees south to shift part of the ridge that formed at 90°E longitude (the “Ninety East Ridge”) over the pre-Flood equatorial bulge. So the endpoints of the arc are:
- Northern: 85°E, 56°N
- Southern: 89°E, 33°N
(Why 33°? Because the roll extent and the original latitude for the North Pole must be complementary, i.e., their measures must add up to 90°, the measure of a right angle.)
- Next, calculate the antipodal points to these two endpoints. To find a point antipodal to any point on earth:
- Reverse the directions of both coordinates. Here, North becomes South, and East becomes West.
- The absolute value of the latitude stays the same.
- The longitudes of the original point and its antipode are supplementary. That is, they add up to 180°, the angle measure of a line.
Now locate a point midway along each of these great circle arcs. These are your original North and South Poles.
- Use a 3/8 inch spade bit, or a 5/16 inch drill bit. Drill a hole in the globe at each point. You might have to widen the hole, depending on the size of the available eyelets and the size of your bit.
- Insert an eyelet or grommet into each hole.
- Now dismount the globe from its original eyelets, and remount it at the new eyelets.
- Place your marker first at 0°, then at about 23.5°N and S, then at 66.3°N and S. Turn the globe as you hold the marker against it. In this way you can redraw the Equator, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles as they lay before the Great Roll.
You can see at once that the equator originally passed far to the north of where it lies today, as it passed over the modern Western Hemisphere. Over the Eastern Hemisphere, it dipped south. By itself the Equator says little. But the pre-roll Tropics and polar circles say much more:
- Australia was totally tropical originally. Today, New South Wales and Tasmania are temperate, while Queensland and the Northern Territory are tropical.
- Antarctica was originally entirely temperate. This, of course, treats the period after the Flood and the breakup of the original single land mass, but before the earth rolled. But as you can see, Antarctica originally had a full range of climates, from the sub(ant)arctic to the subtropical. The original Antarctic Circle passes over the most distal extent of the Palmer Peninsula. That is the only possible exception to Antarctica being a temperate continent.
- Walt Brown’s original caveat, about how far south the original North Pole could have lain, also stands confirmed. Any further south, and the original North Pole might have been at the center of mass of the Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau system. Of course, one must consider that configuration highly unstable. Nevertheless, the roll might still not have occurred, had not the North Pole remained entirely north of the Himalayan chain and Tibetan Plateau. It had to stay north of the center of mass, for that mass to pull the earth into a roll.
- Canada and the United States were tropical. We already knew that. But Mexico was temperate. Furthermore, South America was also temperate, except for its extreme southern extent, which was antarctic and as cold then as Antarctica is today.
What this means
Because Canada and the United States were tropical, we would expect to find tropical rainforest and tropical animals frozen in North American permafrost. Which is precisely what we do find. We also would expect to see that central Asia suffered worse from the Ice Age than any other land region.
Note also: Antarctica was temperate. The debate on “global warming” includes findings from ice cores taken from Antarctica. Those cores purport to show that Antarctica was once much warmer than it is today. And of course it was. Not because the globe was any warmer, but because the globe placed Antarctica where it could get better exposure to the sun.
So one cannot argue that the climate has “cycled” over “millions of years.” The climate of earth has warmed steadily since the peak of the Ice Age. But that warming has affected different continents differently, depending on where they lay before and after the Great Roll.
The Creation Science Hall of Fame offers this article as a tool for further research. It will show where one might expect to find tropical, temperate, or polar fossils, even in places that today do not conform to the climates that produced those fossils. It might also shed light on how, and how fast, the globe might be warming.
This correspondent acknowledges the aid of Pam Elder, who ran the original experiment, and Walt Brown, who reviewed the findings.